INFECTIOUS SYNDROMES IN IMMUNOCOMPROMISED PATIENTS


 
SYNDROME INFECTIOUS CAUSES NON-INFECTIOUS CAUSES
Mouth and esophagus HSV, Candida spp.

Rarely bacteria (strep, anaerobes), CMV, fungi

Drug toxicity (mucositis), GVHD, reflux, irradiation
Pharyngitis Respiratory viruses, bacteria (strep, chlamydia, mycoplasma)

Rarely Candida spp., CMV, fungi (Aspergillus, zygomycetes)

Same as above
Laryngitis & epiglottitis Respiratory viruses, HSV, bacteria (strep, H. influenza, B. catarrhalis), Candida spp.

Rarely CMV, VZV, Aspergillus

Same as above
Tracheitis HSV, bacteria (staph, strep)

Rarely CMV, Aspergillus

Same as above
Pulmonary infiltrates: localized Bacteria (Legionella, others), fungi

Rarely TB, atypical mycobacteria, HSV, respiratory viruses

Pulmonary embolism and hemorrhage, tumor
Pulmonary infiltrates: diffuse Respiratory viruses, HSV, CMV, PCP, bacteria (Legionella, mycoplasma, others)

Rarely cryptococcus, TB, atypical mycobacteria, VZV

Drug toxicity, pulmonary edema, radiation pneumonitis, alveolar hemorrhage, ARDS, hypersensitivity drug reaction, idiopathic interstitial pneumonitis, leukoagglutinin reaction, GVHD, EBV- associated lymphoma, pulmonary venoocclusive disease, alveolar proteinosis, bronchiolitis obliterans
Sinusitis Bacteria, respiratory viruses, fungi

Rarely atypical mycobacteria, VZV

Tumor
Skin and soft tissue Bacteria, HSV, VZV, fungi, Candida spp.

Rarely CMV, HHV-6, atypical mycobacteria

Drug toxicity, tumor, GVHD
Bloodstream infections Bacteria, Candida spp

Rarely atypical mycobacteria, fungi

NA
Catheter-site infections Bacteria, Candida spp.

Rarely fungi, mycobacteria

Chemical phlebitis, venous thrombosis
Gut inflammation, typhlitis Bacteria (C. difficile, anaerobes), CMV

Rarely Candida spp, adenovirus, rotavirus, enteroviruses, fungi

Drug toxicity, bleeding, infarction, GVHD, tumor
CNS, localized Bacteria (Listeria, others), fungi, Candida spp, toxoplasma, HSV CVA, drug toxicity, tumor
CNS, diffuse Bacteria, Candida spp, cryptococcus

Rarely VZV, HHV-6, CMV

Drug toxicity
Hepatitis Hepatitis A, B & C, CMV

Rarely Candida spp, HHV-6

Drug toxicity, GVHD, VOD
Genitourinary Bacteria, Candida spp

Rarely adenovirus, BK virus, CMV

Drug toxicity
Bone marrow suppression CMV, HHV-6, parvovirus Drug toxicity, tumor, GVHD, graft failure

Source: 1999 American Society of Hematology Education Book